GCE ‘A’ Levels 2004 Choices

Question 1

‘narrow uniform lives…diversity is the new conformity’ (lines 6-7) Explain the contrast the writer is making here and in what way it is contradictory.

Explain = ?
What does ‘it’ refer to?

Contrast: Compared to the past where choices are
limited/living conditions were rigid and homogeneous,
the present offers varied opportunities.

Contradictory: It is contradictory as the contrast is
Illusory, as people are still leading similar lives– now
similar in being different. / They are really the same

Question 2

What does the author intend you to understand by the three dots at the end of the 1st paragraph?


A PROCESS is continuing…
A chain reaction…


The 3 dots are used to illustrate that
the cycle of consumption is repeated…


“We want to choose for ourselves and this demand stimulates invention and production, which increases employment and wealth, which…

Question 3


‘arguably not unconnected with this increase’ (lines 23-24) What is the author suggesting in this phrase? What does ‘arguably’ say about her suggestion?


‘Alongside the increased prosperity
which is gradually, but all too slowly, spreading
across the world, has been a movement
( arguably not unconnected with this increase)
away from centralised totalitarian forms of
government towards democracies.


She is suggesting that the growth in the
economy and better standards of living
have led people away from autocratic rule
to the development of democracies where
people are given the right and freewill to
vote.


The use of word ‘arguably’ suggests that
her suggest6ion can be challenged/debatable.

Question 4

Explain how, according to paragraph 4, animals and inanimate objects differ from humans


‘…tasting, discriminating, choosing.’ (lines 37-38)

‘…being wise or prudent’ (lines 39)

the world’s history shows how choice is fundamental in making us different from animals who must obey their instincts, or from inanimate objects which are entirely subject to the natural forces acting upon them.’ (lines 39-41)

Question 6

From your reading of lines 21-31, explain why the author thinks we are disadvantaged when compared with the ancients Greeks or with class-bound societies.

‘True, the psychoanalysts have offered us the excuse of the determining influence of parents or society: I continue to make awful choices in life because I was brought up in this manner and in this particular set of circumstances.’ (lines 23-25)

‘In some societies, people have had much clearer reasons for accepting fate as inevitable.’ For example, the edict of a divine oracle….. Or again, the unquestioned authority of a class or caste system that allows you to claim: ‘I am here, like it or not, because I was born to this.’ (lines 27-31)

Whereas the ancient Greeks and class-bound societies could explain their misfortunes as the result of an unavoidable destiny, in the form of a divine instruction or the level of the social scale one was born into [1]
we have no such excuse, having no one to blame but ourselves [1].

Question 7

Explain how the three examples given in lines 35-39 are ‘situations where their choices are made for them’ (lines 34-35).

‘into an authoritarian religion which demands adherence to particular rules of behaviour and articles of belief’
(lines 35-36)(ii) ‘into the discipline of military life where initial choice to obey their superiors largely lifts the weight of choosing off their shoulders’ (lines 36-37)
(iii) ‘into an unquestioning commitment to some political, humanitarian or environmental cause.’ (lines 37-39)

One follows prescribed codes of conduct when one holds faith in a specific religion as it would require one to act and think in accordance to its teachings. [1]

In the military aspect, one would have to follow/obey the commands of those who ranked above him.[1]

When one gives total support to a particular cause, the need to make choices is removed. [1]

Question 8

Explain what the author means by ‘our destiny is simply this chameleon stranger- ourself!’ (line 48). (A chameleon is a lizard which changes colour according to its surroundings.)

Just as a chameleon changes its colours according to the surroundings, one’s fate is continually changing and unpredictable as one’s thinking is volatile. [1/2]We are constantly re-structuring the way we remember and see the events in our lives. [1/2]

GCE ‘A’ Levels 2003 Animal Rights Application Question

2003 GP ‘A’ Level Application Question (Animal Rights)

With which of the 2 authors are you most in sympathy?

Explain the reasons for your choice.

How relevant are the views raised by both authors to Singapore society?

SAMPLE A

Kingsley mentions in passage 1 that while we should not be necessarily cruel to animals, our own survival and well-being should always take precedence over that of animals. He presents a less sentimental moral argument which is more reflective given the pragmatic state of society today.

Unlike Kingsley, Reagan in passage 2 mentions that animals have rights regardless of their usefulness to humans. His viewpoint is politically correct and resonates with a small but growing segment of civil society. Though the practicality of using animals to aid Mankind’s survival cannot be underestimated, I tend to sympathize with aspects of Reagan’s arguments as care for lesser beings in society signals the growth of a more aware and sophisticated society.

In addition, despite Kingsley’s assertions that humans must prioritize our survival over animals and that animals are unsalient beings subject to Man’s tyranny, I think that using animals in medical research to aid humanity is useless because no matter how similar animals may appear to be to humans, their DNA is still vastly different from humans. This means that these tests that are preformed are inaccurate. Since we do not benefit much from such inaccurate testing, it is a wasteful and unnecessarily cruel process that should be stopped.

Yet again, Kingley tends to see animals are mere resources and a source of sustenance of mankind. However, I feel that even if we view humans as greater beings be it from a religious viewpoint or a humanist viewpoint, we must still acknowledge our role as custodians of Nature. We have a duty to protect beings that are less able to protect themselves from the ultimate predator, Man. Our total disregard for the animals’ well-being and our wanton consumption of animals constitute a failure of our duty to protect and preserve. Instead of protesting for animal rights which may be futile, there should be more awareness of animal welfare.

Kingsley’s inclination to treat animals merely as resources (and nothing else) is almost in line with the mindset of my society. Indeed my society is a rather pragmatic one. Singaporeans have been trained to embrace rationality and with increasing emphasis on economic progress and technological advances in Singapore, it becomes increasingly harder for us to fight for animal rights. If Singapore adopted Reagan’s call to ban animal testing, we will lose our desirability as a biotechnology hub and this is a consequence that we cannot bear.

Yet at the same time, as we take pride in becoming a developed country which has attained success in many areas, Singapore will not want to lose its solid reputation by being perceived as lacking in sympathy for animals. Indeed, by making it a point to publicize and shame those who mistreat or kill animals wantonly we are recognizing that animals deserve rights and their welfare should be taken care of.

Whilst I think both views are relevant to Singapore, the relevance of Kingley’s view may be greater bearing in mind that Man does not have the liberty to abuse animals but should adopt respectful stewardship.

R2(1)

Ev (characteristics of modern society)

R2(2)

--Comparative element introduced

(characteristics of modern society)

Ev

R1

-comparative element

Ev/ Ex

Using adjectives as value-judgments

R2(1)

Ev

Ex

Ev

R3

--Characteristics of Singapore

SAMPLE B

I sympathize most with the author of passage 1 as I feel that he lacks the human affection to show care and concern for animals, preferring to utilize them fully without even a tiny bit of regret.

In passage 1, Patrick writes that animals should have no rights due to their lack of self-awareness and their low intelligence level. They act solely on instinct and live in a world without rules, thus justifying human’s actions to make use of them. In Singapore, many people also ill-treat animals for their own pleasure. Hence, cases of abuse of pets are not uncommon and buying of products made from skin. Not to mention playing around with stray cats and dogs just for fun. All these are done in Singapore for their own self-interest which signifies cruelty.

However, in Passage 2, Tom fights for animal rights, saying that not being able to think like humans does not deprive them of any rights. Not being able to communicate like humans does not put humans in higher stature. If that is the case, does it mean that handicapped people should be treated with less importance, since they are not as smart intellectually? In Singapore, there are also efforts to try to show animals care and concern. Our own Sungei nature reserve is one good example, attending to the needs of different types of birds. Animals are treated with respect and that should be the way. Singapore has the SPCA too to deal with people who abuse animals.

Therefore, I sympathise with Patrick as all the while, he has a totally wrong mentality and Singapore should continue to uphold its duties to protect animals.

GCE ‘A’ Levels 2003 Animal Rights

Patrick Kingsley
What is his stand?
Do you find his points convincing?

Against Animal Rights
Whilst we do not have to be overtly cruel but our welfare takes precedence over animals.


Tom Regan
What is his stand?
Do you find his points convincing?

Supports Animal Rights
Animals have rights regardless of their usefulness.

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NOTE:

Reflect on:
Logical deductions/fallacies
Tone, Diction, Exaggeration
Cause and Effect
Balanced Viewpoints
Sources and currency


Pay attention to the literary device questions. Make sure you know how to answer questions that involve "quotation marks" etc
Application Question:
--Do not forget the comparative approach --suggested by the word "more convincing"
--Embed characteristics of Singapore society etc

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Question 1


What are the 2 justifications of zoos underlying the verbs ‘preserve’ and ‘exhibit’?

Note: What does verb suggest? – an action
What role do zoos play?


‘Preserve’ – Zoos are necessary to prevent the extinction of animals.

‘Exhibit’ – Animals in zoos are displayed to the public so that it can enjoy and learn about the animals which may otherwise perish in nature.

Question 2


In what way does the author suggest in paragraph 3 that animal rights supporters are selective in the animals whose rights they champion?


The ‘right’ which animal rights supporters have in mind is their own right not to have their own susceptibilities offended by what happens to animals – especially if they are akin to us.


He highlights that animal rights activists tend
to defend the rights of certain species of
animals which they consider to have a likeness
to human beings.

Question 3


‘It is sentiment, not reason which fuels their fanaticism’ Explain what the author is saying by bringing out the meaning of the italicized words.


With regards to animal protection, the author is pointing out that the overly enthusiastic behaviour displayed by animal rights activists is driven by emotion
than by logic.

Question 4
Why does the author put quotation marks round ‘suffer’, ‘enjoy’ and ‘desire’?

Note: Role played by using quotation marks?
What are these words reflective of?
Are animals capable of experiencing it?

But in all this they remain, as far as we can
tell, totally unaware of themselves as individuals: their activity is instinctive, not rational and their feelings are physical sensations, not emotional states as such as experience.

Animals do not experience those
feelings in the same manner as
human beings do. Animals behave in a
spontaneous manner not guided by
Reason or emotion.

Question 4
Why is exploit in quotation marks?


Note: What is your understanding of exploit?
What are you violating when you exploit someone?


No right-thinking person wishes to inflict
unnecessary pain on animals or to ‘exploit’ them in ways which cannot be justified.


The author disagrees with the view that
we are taking advantage of animals as
they are not on the same footing as
humans. They do not enjoy similar rights,
using them should not be seen as taking
advantage of them.

Question 5


‘red in tooth and claw’ ‘inevitably at the expense of animal competitors’
What view of Nature can you deduce from this?


Note: What does red remind you of?
How is it appropriate?


Nature can be cruel/unforgiving/violent.
It follows that only those who outdo or
Eliminate their opponent can survive.

Question 6
What point is the author making in the last sentence?


The last tiger will not mourn its own passing


Highlight that animals are inherently unaware of
Their impending demise. It is mankind who are
aware and continue to take selfishly from the
environment relentlessly.

Question 8
‘the mentally-handicapped child to the clinically insane adult’ Explain in your own words as far as possible the two attributes the author suggests both these examples of handicapped humans lack.


Lack of reason or autonomy


Note: because…
The inability to rationalize or make sensible independent reasons.

Question 9
Explain how the examples are used to develop the author’s argument.


We do not deny equal rights to humans
With these deficiencies– the mentally-
Handicapped child or the clinically insane
Adult; neither can we say that animals– as
Experiencing subjects of life, as defined above-
Have less inherent value.


The author believes that all living beings are worthy and entitled to live a
Fulfilling life. Like the handicap, animals are not able to rationalise and
Make independent decisions but they should still be treated with dignity.

Question 9


Suggest and briefly explain 3 distinct consequences that may arise from the ‘adoption’ of the aims of the animal rights movement set out in paragraph 1.


Note: What are the aims?
How will animals receiving rights and be ascribed inherent value
affect humans?


The fundamental wrong is the system
that allows us to view animals as our resources,
Here for us—to be eaten, or surgically manipulated
Or exploited for sport or money.


--A source of nourishment will be lost
since animals cannot be eaten.
--Man loses entertainment options;
lose of livelihood as using animals to
entertain will be banned.
--S&T will be impeded as animals
cannot be used in labs.

Application Question


With which of the 2 authors are you most in sympathy?
Explain the reasons for your choice.
How relevant are the views raised by both authors to S’pore society?


Why does Man think he’s superior to animals?
Is it possible to balance both objectives? – economically, culturally, politically, religiously etc..
What is the global viewpoint on Animal Rights?
How does society treat the disabled?
Do animals share the same status as the disabled?
What more can/should be done?
What about in the long-run?

Greater sympathies with Passage 1

Many advances in the medical field would be impossible without the use of animals as test subjects ( practical concerns)
Despite what Kingsley says….Animals used for tests and other purposes such as sources of food, are treated humanely and killed painlessly.

Therefore the great benefit to mankind comes at a low cost and little suffering.

Greater sympathies with Passage 2

Using animals in medical research is useless because animals are so vastly different from humans that the tests performed do not provide much benefit. Therefore, it is wasteful and cruel.
Regan points out that it is….Even care for caged animals under humane conditions can never be civil as animals are taken away from their natural environment.

Greater sympathies with Passage 1

Kingsley points that the over-riding principle guiding our treatment of animals must be self-interest.. Animals are merely resources and a source of sustenance for mankind. From a religious point of view, animals were put on earth for our use. From an ethical point of view, animals may be used for the greater good of mankind.

Greater sympathies with Passage 2

Even if we view humans as greater brings, we must not as Regan says forget that animals are entitled to rights as conscious creatures. We must still acknowledge our role as custodians of nature. Total disregard for animals’ wellbeing constitute a derogation of our duty to protect and preserve.

Greater relevance with Passage 1

Pragmatic society with greater emphasis on economic progress and technological advance. Therefore, animal rights are often sidelined for practical purposes.
Singaporeans find it hard to relate to nature as most live in high-rise concrete jungles. Most do not relate to animals more than food or pets.

Less relevance with Passage 2

Less awareness of animal rights in Singapore, so this is a non-issue. There is no need to argue that animals have little or no rights because very few would make that case for animal rights anyway.
Government is very dominant in shaping

Greater relevance with Passage 2

Since many Singaporeans understand how it feels to be treated as unappreciated undifferentiated automatons, all the more Singaporeans would want to accord to animals some sense of dignity and respect.
Singapore takes place in becoming a developed country which has attained success in many areas. It has even been used as a benchmark. In some of these areas ( business practices, legal system) It will not want to lose its solid reputation by being perceived as lacking in sympathy.

Less relevance with Passage 1

Less awareness of animal rights in Singapore, so this is a non-issue. There is no need to argue that animals have little or no rights because very few would make that case for animal rights anyway.

Evaluative Phrases…

Compared to Kingsley… ( bring in comparative element)

K. Is more relevant than R to our culture…

Reagan is far more emotional…

K, however, …. Unlike R,…. Who indulges in sentimental moral rhetoric, K states facts reflective of the state of the world ( reason)

No country in the world will subscribe to these beliefs … even those who abide by Buddhist teachings would hesitate… it does not merely entail a vegetarian lifestyle but also the prohibition of farming….

R. Is aligned to societies who embrace liberal ideology of HR rather than…..

Cold-hearted yet frank and unabashed assessment…

Current Affairs Updates (LIVE)

Tone/Attitude Vocabulary

Tone/Attitude Vocabulary

The nuances of these words are important!

Anger

accusatory

belligerent

bitter

disappointed

disgusted

furious

grouchy

incredulous

indignant

inflammatory

insulting

irritated

outraged

petulant

querulous

savage

sullen

threatening

wrathful

Humor (Satire)

belittling

caustic

comical

cynical

facetious

flippant

haughty

insulting

ironic

irreverent

malicious

mock-heroic

mocking

obsequious

ribald

ridiculing

sarcastic

scornful

taunting

Sadness/Fear

apprehensive

concerned

despairing

elegiac

foreboding

gloomy

hopeless

melancholy

morose

mournful

pessimistic

regretful

serious

sober

solemn

somber

tragic

Tranquility

calm

hopeful

meditative

nostalgic

optimistic

peaceful

relaxed

reminiscent

sentimental

serene

soothing

spiritual

staid

Romance

affectionate

amorous

compassionate

erotic

fanciful

Happiness

amiable

amused

cheery

contented

ecstatic

elated

enthusiastic

exuberant

hopeful

jovial

joyful

jubilant

lighthearted

optimistic

positive

sanguine

Arrogance

authoritative

boastful

bold

condescending

contemptuous

critical

disdainful

haughty

insolent

judgmental

mordant

patronizing

pompous

pretentious

supercilious

Neutral

Apathetic

Authoritative

Candid

Cautionary

Ceremonial

Clinical

Detached

Didactic

Distant

Erudite

Factual

Forman

Forthright

Informative

Instructive

Matter-of-fact

Objective

Restrained

ideal

intimate

loving

lustful

lyurical

reflective

sensual

tender

whimsical

Logic

argumentative

didactic

doubtful

explanatory

informative

persuasive

rational

thoughtful

Common Misspellings

Common Misspellings and the Correct Versions

No

This is wrong

This is what it should be…

1

mordernised

modernised

2

millenium/milennium

millennium (double L, double N)

3

potray

portray

4

enterpreneurs

entrepreneurs

5

convinient

convenient

6

undoubtly

undoubtedly

7

advertisments

advertisements

8

bussiness

business, businesses

9

curiousity

curiosity

10

opportunities

opportunities

11

pre-martial

pre-marital

12

visious

vicious

13

alot

a lot

14

dversince

ever since

15

althetes

athletes

16

avaliable,availble

available

17

definately

definitely

18

glamourous

glamorous

19

humourous

humorous

29

preserverance

perseverance

21

received

received

22

reknowned

renowned

23

maintainance

maintenance

24

occurrance

occurrence

26

myraid

myriad

26

degradetion

degradation

27

technolgy

technology

28

neccessities

necessities

29

neccessary

necessary

30

Intergration

integration

31

povertystricken

poverty-stricken

32

futher

further

33

heirachy

hierarchy

34

enviroment

environment

Words which are often confused with each other

1

slumps

He always slumps in his chair when he is too tired to sit up straight.

slums

The poor have no choice but to live in slums

2

co-operate

Let’s co-operate and work together.

corporate

The hike in corporate taxes is worrying companies.

3

extend

Shall we extend our lunch hour?

extent

I agree with this statement to a large extent

4

this (singular)

This apple is sweet.

these (plural)

These apples are sweet.

5

spend (present tense)

spent (past tense)

6

economic
Exploiting the poor for economic gains is unethical.

economical (thrifty, cost-saving)

The most economical way to travel to Kuala Lumpur is by bus.

7

woman (singular)

women (plural)

8

attain (to reach)

obtain (to acquire)

9

aid

Poor countries require foreign aid or

Aid is given to developing nations.

aids

10

dependent
Singapore is still largely dependent on Malaysia for water.

dependant

The boy is a dependant of his mother.

11

criterion (singular)

criteria (plural)

12

phenomenon (singular)

phenomena (plural)

Words that do not exist in the plural form

Those in bold are wrong; correct versions are in brackets

1

Technologys (Technology has) have benefited Man

2

We obtain Informations (information) from the Internet

3

They have many offsprings (offspring)

4

Our throw-away culture has generated lots of wastes (waste)

5

The equipments (equipment) in the gym are new

6

Researches have (Research has) shown that smoking is bad for our health.

Other comments:

§ Use a definite article (the) or indefinite article (a/an)for the following:

- A majority or The majority

- The United Kingdom

- The United States

- The United Nations

- The Internet

§ There are no such words as “deprove”, “deproving” and“deprovement”.