GCE ‘A’ Levels 2003 Animal Rights

Patrick Kingsley
What is his stand?
Do you find his points convincing?

Against Animal Rights
Whilst we do not have to be overtly cruel but our welfare takes precedence over animals.


Tom Regan
What is his stand?
Do you find his points convincing?

Supports Animal Rights
Animals have rights regardless of their usefulness.

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NOTE:

Reflect on:
Logical deductions/fallacies
Tone, Diction, Exaggeration
Cause and Effect
Balanced Viewpoints
Sources and currency


Pay attention to the literary device questions. Make sure you know how to answer questions that involve "quotation marks" etc
Application Question:
--Do not forget the comparative approach --suggested by the word "more convincing"
--Embed characteristics of Singapore society etc

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Question 1


What are the 2 justifications of zoos underlying the verbs ‘preserve’ and ‘exhibit’?

Note: What does verb suggest? – an action
What role do zoos play?


‘Preserve’ – Zoos are necessary to prevent the extinction of animals.

‘Exhibit’ – Animals in zoos are displayed to the public so that it can enjoy and learn about the animals which may otherwise perish in nature.

Question 2


In what way does the author suggest in paragraph 3 that animal rights supporters are selective in the animals whose rights they champion?


The ‘right’ which animal rights supporters have in mind is their own right not to have their own susceptibilities offended by what happens to animals – especially if they are akin to us.


He highlights that animal rights activists tend
to defend the rights of certain species of
animals which they consider to have a likeness
to human beings.

Question 3


‘It is sentiment, not reason which fuels their fanaticism’ Explain what the author is saying by bringing out the meaning of the italicized words.


With regards to animal protection, the author is pointing out that the overly enthusiastic behaviour displayed by animal rights activists is driven by emotion
than by logic.

Question 4
Why does the author put quotation marks round ‘suffer’, ‘enjoy’ and ‘desire’?

Note: Role played by using quotation marks?
What are these words reflective of?
Are animals capable of experiencing it?

But in all this they remain, as far as we can
tell, totally unaware of themselves as individuals: their activity is instinctive, not rational and their feelings are physical sensations, not emotional states as such as experience.

Animals do not experience those
feelings in the same manner as
human beings do. Animals behave in a
spontaneous manner not guided by
Reason or emotion.

Question 4
Why is exploit in quotation marks?


Note: What is your understanding of exploit?
What are you violating when you exploit someone?


No right-thinking person wishes to inflict
unnecessary pain on animals or to ‘exploit’ them in ways which cannot be justified.


The author disagrees with the view that
we are taking advantage of animals as
they are not on the same footing as
humans. They do not enjoy similar rights,
using them should not be seen as taking
advantage of them.

Question 5


‘red in tooth and claw’ ‘inevitably at the expense of animal competitors’
What view of Nature can you deduce from this?


Note: What does red remind you of?
How is it appropriate?


Nature can be cruel/unforgiving/violent.
It follows that only those who outdo or
Eliminate their opponent can survive.

Question 6
What point is the author making in the last sentence?


The last tiger will not mourn its own passing


Highlight that animals are inherently unaware of
Their impending demise. It is mankind who are
aware and continue to take selfishly from the
environment relentlessly.

Question 8
‘the mentally-handicapped child to the clinically insane adult’ Explain in your own words as far as possible the two attributes the author suggests both these examples of handicapped humans lack.


Lack of reason or autonomy


Note: because…
The inability to rationalize or make sensible independent reasons.

Question 9
Explain how the examples are used to develop the author’s argument.


We do not deny equal rights to humans
With these deficiencies– the mentally-
Handicapped child or the clinically insane
Adult; neither can we say that animals– as
Experiencing subjects of life, as defined above-
Have less inherent value.


The author believes that all living beings are worthy and entitled to live a
Fulfilling life. Like the handicap, animals are not able to rationalise and
Make independent decisions but they should still be treated with dignity.

Question 9


Suggest and briefly explain 3 distinct consequences that may arise from the ‘adoption’ of the aims of the animal rights movement set out in paragraph 1.


Note: What are the aims?
How will animals receiving rights and be ascribed inherent value
affect humans?


The fundamental wrong is the system
that allows us to view animals as our resources,
Here for us—to be eaten, or surgically manipulated
Or exploited for sport or money.


--A source of nourishment will be lost
since animals cannot be eaten.
--Man loses entertainment options;
lose of livelihood as using animals to
entertain will be banned.
--S&T will be impeded as animals
cannot be used in labs.

Application Question


With which of the 2 authors are you most in sympathy?
Explain the reasons for your choice.
How relevant are the views raised by both authors to S’pore society?


Why does Man think he’s superior to animals?
Is it possible to balance both objectives? – economically, culturally, politically, religiously etc..
What is the global viewpoint on Animal Rights?
How does society treat the disabled?
Do animals share the same status as the disabled?
What more can/should be done?
What about in the long-run?

Greater sympathies with Passage 1

Many advances in the medical field would be impossible without the use of animals as test subjects ( practical concerns)
Despite what Kingsley says….Animals used for tests and other purposes such as sources of food, are treated humanely and killed painlessly.

Therefore the great benefit to mankind comes at a low cost and little suffering.

Greater sympathies with Passage 2

Using animals in medical research is useless because animals are so vastly different from humans that the tests performed do not provide much benefit. Therefore, it is wasteful and cruel.
Regan points out that it is….Even care for caged animals under humane conditions can never be civil as animals are taken away from their natural environment.

Greater sympathies with Passage 1

Kingsley points that the over-riding principle guiding our treatment of animals must be self-interest.. Animals are merely resources and a source of sustenance for mankind. From a religious point of view, animals were put on earth for our use. From an ethical point of view, animals may be used for the greater good of mankind.

Greater sympathies with Passage 2

Even if we view humans as greater brings, we must not as Regan says forget that animals are entitled to rights as conscious creatures. We must still acknowledge our role as custodians of nature. Total disregard for animals’ wellbeing constitute a derogation of our duty to protect and preserve.

Greater relevance with Passage 1

Pragmatic society with greater emphasis on economic progress and technological advance. Therefore, animal rights are often sidelined for practical purposes.
Singaporeans find it hard to relate to nature as most live in high-rise concrete jungles. Most do not relate to animals more than food or pets.

Less relevance with Passage 2

Less awareness of animal rights in Singapore, so this is a non-issue. There is no need to argue that animals have little or no rights because very few would make that case for animal rights anyway.
Government is very dominant in shaping

Greater relevance with Passage 2

Since many Singaporeans understand how it feels to be treated as unappreciated undifferentiated automatons, all the more Singaporeans would want to accord to animals some sense of dignity and respect.
Singapore takes place in becoming a developed country which has attained success in many areas. It has even been used as a benchmark. In some of these areas ( business practices, legal system) It will not want to lose its solid reputation by being perceived as lacking in sympathy.

Less relevance with Passage 1

Less awareness of animal rights in Singapore, so this is a non-issue. There is no need to argue that animals have little or no rights because very few would make that case for animal rights anyway.

Evaluative Phrases…

Compared to Kingsley… ( bring in comparative element)

K. Is more relevant than R to our culture…

Reagan is far more emotional…

K, however, …. Unlike R,…. Who indulges in sentimental moral rhetoric, K states facts reflective of the state of the world ( reason)

No country in the world will subscribe to these beliefs … even those who abide by Buddhist teachings would hesitate… it does not merely entail a vegetarian lifestyle but also the prohibition of farming….

R. Is aligned to societies who embrace liberal ideology of HR rather than…..

Cold-hearted yet frank and unabashed assessment…

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